(Provisional draft to be edited and updated)
By Michael W. Fox DSc, PhD, BVetMed, MRCVS
Electropollution from the Earth-shrouding and penetrating cybersphere of telecommunications is a major emerging existential threat and One Health issue of this Anthropocene age. Extensive scientific documentation of this critical concern is appended in this overview with regard to public, wildlife and domestic animal health and well-being. These harmful consequences and their minimization need to be considered by all involved, from providers, users and exposed communities to responsible providers and governmental regulatory agencies national and international.
“Sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation is the emerging health problem of the 21st century. It is imperative that health practitioners, governments, schools and parents learn more about it. The human health stakes are significant. “
- William Rea, MD, Founder & Director of the Environmental Health Center, Dallas and Past President, American Academy of Environmental Medicine.
“The greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields.”
- EMF pioneer and Nobel prize nominee Dr. Robert Becker.
“Because of the recent proliferation of radio frequency radiation from cell phones and towers, terrestrial antennas, Wi-Fi and Wi-max systems, broadband internet over power lines, and personal electronic equipment, we may be facing a looming epidemic of morbidity and mortality. In Dirty Electricity, he reveals the steps we must take, personally and as a society, to coexist with this marvelous but dangerous technology.”
- Samuel Milham, MD, MPH, author of Dirty Electricity.
Our planet is a living biosphere (including the atmosphere), what some call the anima mundi or soul of the Earth. It sustains all sentient beings whose bioelectrical fields are attuned to the Earth’s electromagnetic field. The planetary biosphere is being covered by the electronic cybersphere, the realm of information technology and electronic communication, especially the Internet. Helping interconnect and socialize humankind, this is seen by some as the “hominizing” techno-evolution envisioned by Fr Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, SJ, facilitating the genesis of the noosphere. the collectively connected evolutionary matrix of human consciousness. (1).
But the nascent global network of 5 G and other telecommunications and associated mega-energy demands of data storage and services, other forms of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) and electromagnetic fields, (EMFs), are harmful at various frequencies and intensities. They are known to affect neuronal function and DNA, may precipitate techno-devolution and degenerative changes in human psychophysiology, health and behavior. (2) They may also decimate insect and other wildlife species and populations, declining biodiversity affecting ecosystem viability and aggravating the consequences of climate change, detrimental to agriculture and public health and the economy. Electromagnetic fields from powerlines, cell phones, cell towers, satellites and wireless impact the birds, bees, wildlife and our environment. (3).
“As we move to the left of the visible light band in the figure above, we move to lower frequencies. By “frequency” we mean how rapidly these waves move up and down. The lower the frequency, the lower the energy. In these lower frequencies on the left side of the electromagnetic spectrum, we find infrared, microwave, radio waves, and cell phone range radiation. The CDC states “ We don’t know for sure if RF radiation from cell phones can cause health problems years later. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF radiation as a “possible human carcinogen.”
The Bioinitiative Report 2012 makes the claim that there are significant health risks associated with low frequency non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation “BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for a Biologically-based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF)”.
According to Physicians for Responsible Technology (4) “A diverse array of animal life relies upon the earth’s magnetic field for navigation, breeding, feeding, migration and survival. Biologists have discovered that wireless electromagnetic radiation disturbs internal magneto-receptors used for navigation, as well as disrupting other complex cellular and biologic processes in mammals, birds, fish, insects, trees, plants, seeds and bacteria with profound impacts on the natural environment. Different species have different interactions with radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and differ in their toxic effect. These effects may not be immediately apparent with a slow decline in the health of wildlife seen over time with cumulative exposure.”
Increased Radiofrequency Radiation and The Decline of Birds, Bees and Wildlife
Biologists have noted that wildlife are susceptible to harm from manmade ambient electromagnetic fields. Researchers are now attributing RFR from cellular telecommunications to be a contributing cause of bee “colony collapse disorder”, insect disappearance, the decline in house sparrows in London, as well as the steady deterioration of the worlds bird population with now than 40% of bird species under critical threat. Scientists note a serious lack of radiation monitoring and protocols to study the impacts and call for precaution in the placement of cell towers and further expansion of wireless broadband. In the United States, Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 does not allow consideration of environmental effects in the placement of cell towers. Telecommunications Act of 1996
The European Commissions Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Emerging Risks (SCHEER) in 2018 issued their emerging risks report. They listed 5G electromagnetic radiation as an emerging risk due to it’s effects on wildlife. They pointed to a recent article “5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. (2018) by Russell CL in Environmental Research. Other important research includes Dr. Martin Pall’s articles 5G: Great Risk for EU and Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health.
Wildlife Are More Vulnerable to Wireless Radiation
Adverse responses from radiofrequency radiation that have been identified include abnormal behavior, developmental abnormalities, diminished reproduction and increased mortality. Birds, bees, turtles, dolphins, salamanders, salmon, amphibians and other animals use the earth’s weak magnetic field and their own internal magneto-receptors to navigate. Birds have feathers that can act as antenna and amplify the negative effects of RF radiation (5). Insects, the base of the food chain, appear particularly susceptible to radiofrequency radiation, especially 5G millimeter wavelengths which are the size of the insect and create a damaging resonance effect.” Several studies confirm these assertions. ( 6,7, 8).
Mammals, like humans, have similar reproductive organs, immune systems and nervous systems, thus are susceptible to molecular and cellular harm from artificial wireless radiofrequency wavelengths. Katie Singer, in her extensively referenced book Electronic Silent Spring, highlights that the Earth’s living systems evolved their own internal and external signaling systems in the presence of the earth’s low electromagnetic environment and thus are vulnerable to the much higher levels of artificial pulsed electromagnetic radiation experienced today. (9)
Combined with habitat loss and pesticides, the demise of insects and insectivores is the new norm of the Anthropocene epoch, the consequences of which will highly detrimental to agricultural productivity, the economy and public health especially with the emergence of resistant species and strains of insect pests and pathogenic vectors of disease.
Already changes in brain function and connectivity are being documented in children with early exposure to cybertechnology, (10) especially addictive computer games, calling for limited daily exposure. People who are electrosensitive to NIR and EMFs are developing often severely incapacitating physical and cognitive difficulties which are generally dismissed by health authorities. Many otherwise healthy adults experience addiction-withdrawal when there are power failures.
GPS/satellite telemetry process (from Argos 2008:11). The GPS receiver stores location data. This data is later transmitted to the Argos satellite, where it can be distributed to users worldwide.
Conspiracy theories concerning the rise of wireless technology such as it being part of a global technocracy controlling human behavior abound. They deflect legitimate questioning and public disclosure of documented environmental and public and animal health risks. So does the more legitimate concern over China’s Huawe telecommunications company involvement in 5G and U.S. cybersecurity These risks need to be weighed against the benefits of having smart phones, meters, cities, WiFi, and telemedicine. The environmental costs, including loss of biodiversity (insects notably), contribution to climate change with escalating energy use, and effects on human behavior, anatomy and physiology are considerable. The World Health Organization in 2011 designated such radiofrequency radiation as a probable carcinogen in the same category as lead and DDT. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported cancers in test animals, (11, 12) some similar to those seen in humans, and the incidence of brain tumors in young people is in the rise. (13).
The NTP studies found that high exposure to RFR used by cell phones was associated with:
• Clear evidence of tumors in the hearts of male rats. The tumors were malignant schwannomas.
• Some evidence of tumors in the brains of male rats. The tumors were malignant gliomas.
• Some evidence of tumors in the adrenal glands of male rats. The tumors were benign, malignant, or complex combined pheochromocytoma.
The use of the Internet via smartphones, lap tops and tablets ( users being warned to keep such devices away from various body parts) for mass entertainment, social media, gaming, pornography, market advertising and purchasing, public surveillance, spreading of disinformation and various cybercrimes and failures of cybersecurity systems are all escalating along with various military applications. 5G telecommunication systems are spreading coupled with the expanding smart/cell phone market.
This is not a neo-Luddite overstatement, but a call for sensibility by all users. Limiting daily use and market and consumer- driven content and trivial narcissistic postings would be a start. It is a boon especially for scientists and others monitoring and sharing data about the environment, endangered species and in telemedicine, disease diagnostics, monitoring and prevention, weather forecasts to support farmers and communities.
But the control, promotion and exploitation of the Internet by vested interests, commercial, political and ideological, are now well embedded. This calls for personal vigilance and disengagement apart from highly selective searches and communications germane to what Teilhard de Chardin envisioned as the common good derived from any technology, all of which come with hidden costs, risks and unforeseen consequences. Artificial intelligence in the foreseeable future for analytical purposes and to fact-check and make all internet entries verifiably truthful may be one appropriate application of data mining and analysis. Then the truth will set us free from the bonds of anthropocentric distortions of perception and conception, opening us to the noosphere as we engage with the sentient empathosphere of informed feeling, inspired by and connected with nature, other animals, plants, through greater understanding by way of science, silent contemplation, meditation, poetry and music which move us to compassionate action and humility.
The collective sensorium of this life community which the biosphere and solar radiation help sustain, creates a unifying connectivity of conscious, sentient life, notably this empathosphere at the emotional level of awareness. (14). It would be a great tragedy if anthropogenic electropollution were to disrupt such life-sustaining connectivity. Researchers have found that sweat ducts in human skin acted as “helical antennas,” the ducts acting as receptors for 5G radiation – allowing them to not only capture the radiation, but to concentrate and amplify it. ( 15, 16, 17). In addition, EMF radiation may cause effects at the cellular level, thereby impacting chromosomes, DNA, proteins and genes and the concentration of radiofrequency radiation from sub-terahertz waves in skin can trigger: a sensation of heat and a “sudden, acute pain response.” reported by electrosensitive individuals.(18, 19, 20).
But healthy and empathic human connectivity will be a pipe dream if electropollution and its harmful effects on us and all living beings so far studied by scientists (see Addendum of additional reference citations) continue to be denied, and what Pope Francis in his encyclical Laudato Si’ calls “tyrannical anthropocentrism.”
With the consequences of anthropogenic climate change challenging future generations of our species and of plants, and animals and the planet’s future, all polluting and life-harming technologies need to be curtailed for the common good and the good of the Commons. The life community will have additional survival and adaptation challenges as the Earth’s radiation-protecting electromagnetic field weakens and polar axis shifts and reversals. (21,22). Our planet may also be moving into a “warmer” region of the cosmos with more intense and different forms of radiation. Anthropogenic forms or radiation may confound those of our own biological evolution and adaptive abilities and that of other sentient life forms. Karam notes that cosmic supernovae and gamma ray bursts “have produced radiation levels that, while not lethal, are genetically significant, and these events may have influenced the course of evolution and the manner in which organisms respond to radiation insult.” (23).
It is assuring to have science affirm what Teilhard de Chardin declared:” How great is the mystery of the first cells which were one day animated by the breath of our souls! How impossible to decipher the welding of successive influences in which we are forever incorporated! In each one of us, through matter, the whole history of the world is in part reflected.” (23). As such composite beings of this biosphere we owe it to others, our ancestors, commensals and symbiotes including those within our own bodies, the reverential respect that is long overdue as we re-define ourselves as a planetary species, co-evolved, co-dependent and aware, giving more to life than we take and avoiding harm when and where ever we can. As the Anishinaabe Chippewa assert: Manaaji’idiwin—respect all beings and things.
The author is grateful for the help of Dr. Nancy Van Dover DVM, OMD, Lic Acup. and Rudy Edalati in the execution of this review.
EMF AND NIR PROTECTION
From a holistic veterinarian colleague who is electrosensitive:
https://takebackyourpower.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/7-Essential-Ways-to-Make-Your-Home-Safe.pdf. The addendum is great too!
I’ve read these suggestions on the link above…good, better, best solutions to reduce radiation in daily life that Josh has sent. There are a few things I’d add and written about below….after you read the above link, these will make sense. (The attachment are some of my own that I haven’t updated for a while. The internet over powerline method works well but may not be good for very sensitive people because it creates some dirty electricity in house wiring.)
I use direct ethernet cords from my modem to my computer, no router in the house at all ($10 for 50’ cord). My cords are not shielded and are fine for me. If you still need to use a router for a short time before you get hardwire converted, you can get a Signal Tamer from lessemf.com ($35) to put it in when using it. It also helps keep radiation w/in small apartments and offices so there isn’t extra spilling over into everyone’s spaces. It will reduce the radiation about 90% and the area it services will be smaller. If you already have a “smart” tv, cover it’s black box w/ several layers of aluminum foil.
Only use ear buds that have air in them, not all wire (that will act as an antenna for the radiation to travel to your brain)
Watch video to change settings and reduce the radiation your phone puts out. Never put it next to your body when turned ON (the fine print on your phone will tell you the same), esp when you first answer it. https://www.brighteon.com/6044665631001 it’s best not to use a phone in a vehicle, the metal captures and amplifies the radiation.
You can use speaker phone w/ the Safe Sleeve cover ($50) closed (as far from your body as possible) to reduce the large amount of radiation from your cell phone but earbuds are also available. Airtubes are better than the ones w/ wires because wires still transmit some EMF/RFs to your brain. By using a Safe Sleeve or Defender Shield you not only reduce your own radiation exposure but also help reduce the electrosmog pollution which is now so high in all public places, I and other EMS people, cannot safely go into them w/o severe symptoms developing. Defender Shield is another proven cell phone shield that works. Both will allow radiation in and out because otherwise the phone wouldn’t work but it will cut down on it while close to you and others while you have the phone turned on. Today I just measured a phone that was supposedly on airplane mode and it was still irradiating a lot. Not sure why. Make sure your laptop is also on airplane mode!
For pregnant women Belly Armor (online) is a good option to protect the fetus. It will not completely block all radiation so if I was pregnant I would never use a cell phone, tablet or laptop anywhere close to my abdomen. ADHD, autism,etc have been associated w/ exposure in the womb and early childhood. Dr. Devra Davis’s Baby Safe Project w/ Yale U. is a good resource.
Meters: I have a Safe and Sound Pro…has the numbers, very accurate, reads only radiofrequencies RF’s (cell phones, Bluetooth, wifi, cell towers, baby monitors, microwave ovens, etc). Well worth the extra compared to the S&S Classic. A Cornet 88T+ would be my 2nd choice, it will also read electro and magnetic fields (EMF’s), pretty accurate for the RF’s.
There is another meter to use to read DE (dirty electricity), I got the Greenwave one because it has a bigger range. These plug into your outlets. It is not recommended to put in Stetzer filters in your outlets unless you have a dirty electricity problem, so measure first and also have a meter to be able to measure magnetic fields afterwards too. Because if your house, like mine and many others, has wiring errors, these filters will increase the magnetic fields along that part of the wiring which are as bad or worse than the dirty electricity for health. If you share a transformer w/ houses that have solar panels then they will be increasing dirty electricity into your house too unfortunately. All inverters (DC/AC) do this. Whole house filters may be the best solution. They cost about $1500. Again measure first to see if it’s a big problem. DE has caused cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, etc. A friend of mine developed polycythemia vera, a blood cancer, from it…. also EMS Disabled now.
An important thing to remember if you are mitigating/shielding w/ paint, fabric/window film, etc you don’t want to use wireless radiation w/in the area because it will also capture and amplify the radiation w/in it. Like a Faraday cage, or a car. Shielding is best done w/ the help of an expert, at least w/ the use of an accurate meter.
Many don’t know that their symptoms are coming from wireless radiation. If you are sensitive to chemicals, esp chemical fragrances, then you most likely are sensitive to EMF/RFs too. Those most susceptible are children, elderly, the infirm and people w/ medical devices in their bodies…these can be turned off or affected by the microwave radiation. Most medical practitioners don’t know about this toxin or it’s symptoms.
Acupuncture needles act as antenna for the microwave toxin so should not be performed in wireless radiation fields.
Thank you for taking the time to learn about this toxin that has become ubiquitous and allowed to be used at unsafe levels. We must educate and protect ourselves until the government decides to listen to the science and protect public and environmental health.
POSTCRIPT CONCERNING COMPANION ANIMALS AND RADIO COLLARS
Users of cell phones, tablets and lap-top computers are advised to keep such devices away from various body parts. Such warnings are predicated by The CDC stating; “We don’t know for sure if RF radiation from cell phones can cause health problems years later. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF radiation as a “possible human carcinogen.” https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/cell_phones._faq.html
In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) from the World Health Organization (WHO) released a statement adding radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (including microwave and millimeter waves) to their list of things which are possibly carcinogenic to humans. IARC (31 May 2011). “IARC Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields As Possibly Carcinogenic To Humans” (PDF). Press Release (Press release). The American Cancer Society’s posting (Microwaves, Radio Waves, and Other Types of Radiofrequency Radiation, May 31, 2016 ( https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure.html).and noting that the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, emphasizes that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. National Toxicology Program have not yet formally classified RF radiation as to its cancer-causing potential.
These concerns raise the question of the safety for animals wearing radio collar devices, now widely used on various wildlife species for monitoring, research and conservation/management, and increasingly on livestock and companion animals. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collar telemetry systems are widely used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting wildlife and domestic animal location and movement.
Electronic shock and vibration-generating collars have been associated with cancer in dogs by several owners using such devices in association with electric “Invisible Fences” and to stop their dogs from barking. But further research would be helpful in confirming such associations as documented in the Canine Journal ( https://www.caninejournal.com/community/do-shock-collars-cause-cancer/ Remote electronic training collars have been documented to have adverse welfare consequences to dogs and such stress could play a contributory role in some dogs developing cancer ( See Jonathan J. Cooper, Nina Cracknell, Jessica Hardiman, Hannah Wright, Daniel Mills. The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (9): e102722 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102722).See also Steiss, J.E., Schaffer, C., Ahmed, H.A., Voith, V.L., 2007, Elevation of plasma cortisone levels and behaviour in dogs wearing bark control collars. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106: 96-106
So- called invisible, wireless, electric fences widely used to contain dogs on private property have been anecdotally associated with fear/anxiety syndromes, seizures, lymphoma and other cancers in dogs having frequent exposure to such non-ionizing radiation. More research is called for to determine the veracity of such concerns and in other species where such systems of containment are used. (Electric pulse training aids: more evidence needed, says CAWCVeterinary Record Vol 171, 257. 2012. http://dx.doi. org/10.1136/vr.e6093).
The first veterinarian to highlight problems in animals to my knowledge, was Dr. Allen Schoen, ( www.drschoen.com/2011/09/01/). Not surprisingly he is one of the leaders in veterinary acupuncture and holistic, integrative veterinary practice. He was alerted by the article by Josh Hart (http://stopsmartmeters.org/2011/08/31/and-what-of-the-animals/) about a woman and her dogs, all of whom had adverse reactions after a Smart water meter was installed in her home.
To find out how many cell phone towers and wireless antennae there are within a 2 mile radius of where you live, go to www.antennaesearch.com and you may be in for a big surprise.
PET OWNERS PURCHASING “HIGH TECH” PRODUCTS
About 23% of Americans polled by the Consumer Technology Association said they planned to purchase pet-related technology as a holiday gift, according and the number of pet tech products shipped during the fourth quarter of 2019 was expected to be 60% higher than in the fourth quarter of 2018. Products include automatic food or water dispensers, automatic pet doors, and pet monitoring systems .Las Vegas Review-Journal (tiered subscription model) (12⁄31) A cat litter box on display at a consumer electronics show in las Vegas is equipped with a video camera, connects to voice-enabled assistants and uses artificial intelligence to analyze the cat’s waste for signs of illness. Reported by The Verge (1⁄720).
The more such electronic devices are put into the home environment and monitors put on companion animals’ necks along with remote sensors, training devices and invisible fence shock collars, the more health and behavioral problems I predict: And worse. Equipment failures could put animals at risk. There is no substitute for attentive human care. Electropollution in the home environment is a growing concern, both dogs and humans developing adverse reactions, for instance, to Smart water meters. Microchipping animals for identification is as far as I would go with long-term application of such technology, short-term applications for animal health and wildlife research purposes being carefully monitored by experienced veterinary and other practitioners.
For wildlife the major problems are higher mortalities and morbidity associated with capture stress and the physical and behavioral problems caused by the neck collars. (The National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The Natural Resource Program Center, Biological Resource Management Division and The Soundscapes Program Center. A Critique of Wildlife Radio-Tracking and its Use in national parks. A Report to the US National Parks Service by L. David Mech and Shannon M. Barber 2002, http://npshistory.com/publications/wildlife/radio-tracking-2002.pdf)
The ethics and animal welfare implications of such devices are considerable. ( See Unlocking the “Virtual cage” of Wildlife surveillance. By Henry Linger and Tom Lininger https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1339&context=delpf).
The American Cancer Society’s posting (Microwaves, Radio Waves, and Other Types of Radiofrequency Radiation, May 31, 2016 ( https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure.html).and noting that the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, emphasizes that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. National Toxicology Program have not yet formally classified RF radiation as to its cancer-causing potential.
REFERENCES & END NOTES
- Teilhard de Chardin, P. Man’s Place in Nature. New York. Harper and Row 1966.
- U.N. Environment Programme Urged to Protect Nature and Humankind from Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)4G/5G antenna densification is escalating health risks - a global crisis. https://www.emfscientist.org/index.php/emf-scientist-appeal New York, NY, July 22, 2019. The Advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal, representing 248 scientists from 42 nations, have resubmitted The Appeal to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) requesting the UNEP reassess the potential biological impacts of next generation 4G and 5G telecommunication technologies to plants, animals and humans.
- For documentation visit https://ehtrust.org/science/bees-butterflies-wildlife-research-electromagnetic-fields-environment/
- Physicians for Safe Technology. https://mdsafetech.org/environmental-and-wildlife-effects/
- Bigu-del-Blanco J, Romero-Sierra C. The properties of bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers and as receptors of microwave radiation. I. Bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers. Biotelemetry. 1975;2(6):341-53.
- Cucurachia, S. et al Review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environment International, 51: 2013, 116-140.
- Fernie KJ, Reynolds SJ. The effects of electromagnetic fields from power lines on avian reproductive biology and physiology: a review. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2005 Mar-Apr;8(2):127-40.
- Thielens, A., Bell, D., Mortimore, D.B. et al. Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHz. Sci Rep 8, 3924 (2018) doi:10.1038/s41598
- Singer, K. Electronic Silent Spring: Facing the Dangers and Creating Safe Limits. Portal Books, 2016
- Hutton, J.S. et al Associations Between Screen-Based Media Use and Brain White Matter Integrity in Preschool-Aged Children. JAMA Pediatr. Published online November 4, 2019. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3869
- National Toxicology Program. U.S. Department of health and Human Services https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/areas/cellphones/index.html
- Smith-Roe, S.L. et al. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2019 Oct 21. doi: 10.1002/em.22343. ].
- Miller, A.B. et al Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102) Environmental Research Volume 167, November 2018, Pages 673-683
- Fox, M.W. Animals and Nature First. Chapter 9. Animal Communion and the Empathosphere. Create Space Books, 2011
- Hayut I et al. The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin. IEEE Trans Terahertz Sci Technol, 2013; 3(2):207-215
- Feldman Y, Puzenko A, Ben Ishai P, Caduff A, Davidovich I, Sakran F, Agranat AJ. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range. Phys Med Biol, 2009; 54(11):3341–3363
- Tripathi SR, Miyata E, Ben Ishai P, Kawase K. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region. Sci Rep, 2015; 5:9071
- Kato Y, Johansson O. Reported functional impairments of electrohypersensitive Japanese: A questionnaire survey. Pathophysiology, 2012; 19(2):95–100
- McCarty DE, Carrubba S, Chesson AL, Frilot C, Gonzalez-Toledo E, Marino AA. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: evidence for a novel neurological syndrome. Int J Neurosci, 2011; 121(12):670–676
- World Health Organization. Electrohypersensitivity Fact Sheet http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs296/en
- Channell, J.E.T. et al The Role of Geomagnetic Field Intensity in Late Quaternary Evolution of Humans and Large Mammals Review of Geophysics, 29 May 2019 https://doi.org/10.1029/2018RG000629
- Karam, P.A., Gamma and neutrino radiation dose from gamma ray bursts and nearby supernovae. Health Phys. 2002 Apr;82(4):491-9
- Teilhard de Chardin, .P. The Divine Milieu: An Essay on the Interior Life. New York: Harper & Row, 1965 p. 59-60.
EMFS AFFECTING WILDLIFE
153 peer-viewed studies or articles reporting significant effects from EMF exposures on wildlife.
From https://www.emfresearch.com › emf-wildlife
- Algers B, Hennichs K (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields on vertebrates. Areview.Vet Res Commun; 6(4):265-79 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6359665
- Altmann, G. and Warnke, U. (1976), Der Stoffwechsel von Bienen (Apis mellifica L.) im 50-Hz-Hochspannungsfeld. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 80: 267–271.doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1976.tb03324.xhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1976.tb03324.x/abstract
- Balmori A. (2009a). Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife. Pathophysiology 16. 191–199.http://wifiinschools.org.uk/resources/Balmori+2009.pdf
- Balmori A. (2009b) The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on wild mammals: A new “poison” with a slow effect on nature? The Environmentalist . 30 (1), pg. 90-97. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e03764404274q481/
- Balmori A. (2010). Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory. Electromagn Biol Med. 29(1-2):31-5.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560769
- Balmori, A (2010). The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on wild mammals: A new “poison” with a slow effect on nature? The Environmentalist. 30(1): 90-97. DOI:10.1007/s10669-009-9248-y http://www.springerlink.com/content/e03764404274q481/
- Balmori, A and Ö. Hallberg, (2007) The urban decline of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus):a possible link with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagn. Biol. Med. 26 141–151.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17613041
- Balmori, A. (2005) Possible effects of electromagnetic fields from phone masts on a population of white stork (Ciconia ciconia), Electromagn. Biol. Med. 24 109–119.www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/effects_of_emf_on_white_stork.pdf .
- Balmori, A. (2006) The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on the amphibian decline: Is this an important piece of the puzzle? Toxicological Environmental Chemistry 88(2): 287-299 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/gtec/2006/00000088/00000002/art00010;jsessionid=45daaaisp3s1s.alexandra
- Balode, S. (1996). Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci. Total. Environm. 180: 81-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8717319
- Bastide M, Youbicier-Simo BJ, Lebecq JC, Giaimis J. (2001). Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice. Indoor Built Environ 10:291–8.http://ibe.sagepub.com/content/10/5/291.abstract
- Batellier F, I. Couty, D. Picard, J.P. Brillard (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell phone in ‘‘call’’ position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology 69: 737–745 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18255134
- Beason, RC and P. Semm (2002). Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus Neuroscience Letters 333: 175–178.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12429376
- Becker RO (1984). Electromagnetic Controls Over Biological Growth Processes. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 3(1-2). 105-118.http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378409035962
- Begall S, Cerveny J, Neef J, Vojtech O, Burda H. (2008). Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(36):13451-5.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725629
- Berman, E. L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., Koch, W. E., et al.(1990). Development of chicken embryos in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169–187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2242052
- Bernabò N, E. Tettamanti, V. Russo, A. Martelli, M. Turriani, M. Mattoli, B. Barboni (2010). Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-1305 http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X(10)00047-6/abstract
- Bigu J. (1973) National Research Centre of Canada. Extract from Ltr-CS-113 “Interaction of electromagnetic fields and living systems with special reference to birds.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16724328
- Bigu-del-Blanco and Romero-Sierra (1975) The properties of bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers and as receptors of microwave radiation. I. Bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers Biotelemetry 2:341-353.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1235241?dopt=AbstractPlus
- Bigu-del-Blanco and Romero-Sierra (1975). The properties of bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers and as receptors of microwave radiation. II. Bird feathers as dielectric receptors of microwave radiation. Biotelemetry 2:354-634 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1242004?dopt=AbstractPlus
- Bindokas VP, Gauger JR, Greenberg B. (1988). Mechanism of biological effects observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera, L.) hived under extra-high-voltage transmission lines: implications derived from bee exposure to simulated intense electric fields and shocks. Bioelectromagnetics. 9(3):285-301. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3178903?dopt=Abstract
- Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ;9(2):129–140http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3377861
- Briefing Paper on the Need for Research into the Cumulative Impacts of Communication Towers on Migratory Birds and Other Wildlife in the United Stateshttp://www.healthandenvironment.org/wg_emf_news/6144
- Bruder B,. Boldt A. (1994). Homing pigeons under radio influence. Naturewissenschaften 81(7):316–17. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0028-1042/81/7/
- Bryan TE, Gildersleeve RP. (1988). Effects of nonionizing radiation on birds. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):511-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2899470
- Burchard, J. F., H. Monardes, and D. H. Nguyen. (2003). Effect of 10kV, 30 μT, 60 Hz Electric and Magnetic Fields on Milk Production and Feed Intake in Nonpregnant Dairy Cattle. Bioelectromagnetics 24:557-563. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14603475
- Burchard, J. F., Nguyen, D. H. and Rodriguez, R. (2006). Plasma concentrations of thyroxine in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 27: 553–559http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9771588
- Burda H, S Begall, J Cervený, J Neef, and P Nemec (2009) Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants. PNAS. 106(14): 5708– 5713. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2667019/
- Cammaerts MC, Debeir O, Cammaerts R. (2011). Changes in Paramecium caudatum (Protozoa)near a switched-on GSM telephone. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(1):57-66. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.566778
- Cammaerts MC, P De Doncker, X Patris, F Bellens, Z Rachidi, D Cammaerts (2012). GSM900 MHz radiation inhibits ants’ association between food sites and encountered cues. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on January 23, 2012. (doi:10.3109⁄15368378.2011.624661) http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.624661
- Clark MW, Gildersleeve RP, Thaxton JP, Parkhurst CR, McRee DI. (1987). Leukocyte numbers in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol AComp Physiol. 87(4):923-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2887391
- Colin ME, D. Richard, S. Chauzy (1991). Measurement of Electric Charges Carried by Bees: Evidence of Biological Variations. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 10(1-2): 17–32. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379109031397
- Corbet, SA, J Beament, and D Eisikowitch (1982). Are electrostatic forces involved in pollen transfer? Plant, Cell, and Environ. 5: 125-129. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-3040.ep11571488/abstract
- Cramer , G. (2007). HAARP Transmissions May Accidentally be Jamming Bees Homing Ability http://www.hyperstealth.com/haarp/index.htm
- Daniells, C., Duce, I., Thomas, D., Sewell, P., Tattersall, J., & de Pomerai, D. (1998).Transgenic nematodes as biomonitors of microwave-induced stress. Mutation Research,399(1), 55-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9635489
- Delgado JMR (1985). Biological Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 4(1): 75–92 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378509040362
- Doherty and Grubb, (1996). Effects of high-voltage power lines on birds breeding within the power lines electromagnetic fields. Sialia 18:129–134 http://audubon-omaha.org/bbbox/nabs/pdtg1.htm
- Dongre S.D. and R.G.Verma (2009). Effect Of Cell Phone Radiation On Gauriya Sparrows Passer Domesticus. International Research Journal Vol. II, Issue -7http://ssmrae.com/admin/images/ddf68afa10cc9d1545ce7a5f0460bddf.pdf
- Durfee WK, Polk C, Smith LT,Yates VJ. (1975). Extremely Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields in Domestic Birds. University of Rhode Island, Technical Report, Phase I(Continuous Wave), March 1, 1975.
- Edwards, D. K. (1961). Influence of electrical field on pupation and oviposition in Nepytia phantasmaria stkr. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Nature 191, 976-993. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v191/n4792/abs/191976a0.html
- Eskov EK.(2006). [Destabilization of the cardiac function of an insect by a low-frequency electric field]. Biofizika. 51(1):153-5. [Article in Russian].http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521566
- Eskov EK., Sapozhnikov AM (1976). [Mechanisms of generation and perception of electric fields by honey bees.] Biophysik 21(6): 1097-1102. [Article in Russian]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1009204
- Everaert, J. & D. Bauwens, (2007) A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Electromagn. Biol. Med. 26 63–72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454083 Full text: http://www.ct.gov/csc/lib/csc/pendingproceeds/docket_409/inlandwetland/409-iw_exh69-79.pdf#page=17(p 40-49).
- Farrell, J. M., Litovitz, T. L., Penafiel, M., Montrose, C.J., Doinov, P., Barber, M., Brown, K.M., and Litovitz, T. A. (1997). The effect of pulsed and sinusoidal magnetic fields on the morphology of developing chick embryos. Bioelectromagnetics 18:431–438. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261540
- Favre, D. (2011). Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping. Apidologie. http://www.springerlink.com/content/bx23551862212177/fulltext.pdf
- Fernie KJ, Reynolds SJ. (2005). The effects of electromagnetic fields from power lines on avian reproductive biology and physiology: a review. Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 8(2):127-40. http://www.ierp.bham.ac.uk/documents/pub_Fernie_and_Reynolds_2005.pdf
- Fernie, K.J, D.M. Bird, R.D. Dawson, P.C. Lague, (2000) Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive success of American kestrels, Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 73 60–65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10685907
- Fernie, K.J. & D.M. Bird, (1999) Effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass and food-intake of American kestrels,
- Condor 101 616–621. http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/fernie_cernicalos.pdf
- Fernie, K.J. & D.M. Bird, (2001) Evidence of oxidative stress in American kestrels exposed to electromagnetic fields, Environ. Res. A 86 198–207. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11437466
- Fernie, K.J., D M Bird, and D Petitclerc. (1999). Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels. Environ Health Perspect.107(11): 901–904. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566687/
- Fernie, K.J., N.J. Leonard, D.M. Bird. (2000). Behavior of free-ranging and captive American kestrels under electromagnetic fields, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 59. 597–603. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839495
- Friend AW, E. D. Finch and H. P. Schwan. (1975). Low frequency electric field in ducedchanges in the shape and motility of amoebas. Science, 187: 357-359. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111109
- Gabar, A.A. (2010). Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. PhD Thesis. Agricultural University of Athens. http://dspace.aua.gr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10329/817/Gabr_A.pdf?sequence=1
- Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Hall CA, Thaxton JP, Parkhurst CR. (1981). Humoral and cell-mediated immune function in adult Japanese Quail following exposure to 2.45-GHz microwave radiation during embryogeny. Bioelectromagnetics. 2(3):269-78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7306223
- Gildersleeve RP, Bryan TE, Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Thaxton JP. (1988). Serum enzymes in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):531-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2899471
- Gildersleeve RP, MJGalvin, DI McRee, JP Thaxton (1986). Response of Japanese quail to hemorrhagic stress after exposure to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 85(4): 679-687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=2879671
- Gildersleeve RP, Satterlee DG, McRee DI, Bryan TE, Parkhurst CR. (1988). Plasma corticosterone in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(3):415-24.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2896572
- Gonet, B., Kosik-Bogacka, D.I., Kuźna-Grygiel, W. (2009). Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the oviposition of Drosophila melanogaster over three generations. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(8):687-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630039
- Goodman, E.M., Greenbaum, B., and Marron, M.T. (1976). Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on Physarum polycephalum. Radiat. Res. 66:531. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3574457?uid=3738776&uid=2&uid=4&sid=47698820671907
- Graue, L.C. (1975). Orientation of homing pigeons (Columbia livia) exposed to electromagnetic fields at Project Sanguine’s Wisconsin test facility. In Compilation of Navy Sponsored ELF Biomedical and Ecological Research Reports, vol. I. Bethesda, Md: Naval Research and Development Command.
- Greenberg B, J. C. Kunich, V. P. Binokas. (1978). Effect of High Voltage Transmission on Honeybees, paper presented at 18th Annual Life Sciences Symposium, Richland, Wn.,October 16-18,1978.
- Greenberg, B., Bindokas, V. P., and Gaujer, J. R. (1981). Biological effects of a 760 kVtransmission line: Exposures and thresholds in honeybee colonies. Bioelectromagnetics 2:315 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.2250020404/abstract
- Grefner, N. M., Yakovleva, T. L., Boreysha, I. K. (1998). Effects of electromagnetic radiation on tadpole development in the common frog (Rana temporaria L.). Russian J. Ecol. 29:133– 134.
- Grigor’ev Iu G. (2003). Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate). Radiats Biol Radioecol 43:541–3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658287 [Article in Russian]
- Hamann, H.-J., Schmidt, K.-H., and Wiltschko, W. (1998). Mögliche Wirkungen elektrischer und magnetischer Felder auf die Brutbiologie von Vögeln am Beispiel einer Population vonhöhlenbrütenden Singvögeln an einer Stromtrasse. Z. Vogelk. Natursch. Hessen VogelUmwelt 9:215–246.
- Hamrick PE, McRee DI, Thaxton P, Parkhurst CR. (1977). Humoral immunity of Japanese quail subjected to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Health Phys. 33(1):23-33. [Noabstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/893100
- Harst W., Kuhn J., Stever H.. (2006). Can electromagnetic exposure cause a change in behaviour? Studying possible non-thermal influences on honey bees- An approach within the frame work of Educational Informatics. Acta Systematica – IIAS Intern. J. 6:1–6. http://www.bemri.org/publications/cat_view/2-publications/5-biological-effects-of-non-ionizing-radiation/17-wildlife.html
- Hässig M, Jud F, Spiess B. (2012). [Increased occurence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 154(2):82-6. [Article inGerman] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22287140
- Hässig, M. Jud, F. Naegeli, H. Kupper, J. Spiess, B M. (2009). Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde. 151.10.471 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780007
- Hillman, D., Charles Goeke, and Richard Moser. (2004). Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs)affect milk production and behavior of cows: Results using shielded-neutral isolation transformer. 12th Int. Conf. On Production Diseases in Farm Animals, Mich. State Univ.,College of Veterinary Medicine, July 2004, East Lansing, MI 48824. (Video-DVDavailable).
- Hillman, D., D Stetzer, M Graham, CL. Goeke, K E. Mathson, EE, H H. VanHorn, C J. Wilcox,(2003). Relationship of Electric Power Quality to Milk Production of Dairy Herds. Presentation Paper No.033116, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, InternationalMeeting, July 27-30, 2003, Las Vegas, NV, USA. www.pq.goeke.net
- Hjeresen, D. L., Miller, M. C., Kaune, K. T. and Phillips, R. D. (1982). A behavioral response of swine to a 60 Hz electric field.
- Bioelectromagnetics 3, 443-451. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.2250030407/abstract
- Hultgren, J. (1990a). Small electric currents affecting farm animals and man: A review with special reference to stray voltage. I. Electrical properties of the body and the problem of stray voltage. Veterinary Research Communications, 14:287-298. ©Kluwer Pub., Netherlands. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x848210574v142m7/
- Hultgren, J. 1990b. Small electric currents affecting farm animals and man: A review with special reference to stray voltage. II. Physiological effects and the concept of stress. Veterinary Research Communications, 14:299-308. ©Kluwer Academic Publishers – Netherlands http://www.springerlink.com/content/x848210574v142m7/
- Hynek Burda, S Begall, J Cervený, J Neef, and P Nemec (2009) Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants. PNAS. 106(14):5708-13 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19299504
- Ingole IV and , S. K. Ghosh (2006). Exposure to radio frequency radiation emitted by cell phone and mortality in chick embryos (Gallus domesticus). Biomedical Research 17(3): 205-210 http://www.indmedica.com/journals.php? journalid=12&issueid=112&articleid=1530&action=article
- Janac B Selaković V, Rauš S, Radenović L, Zrnić M, Prolić Z. (2012) Temporal patterns of extremely low frequency magnetic field-induced motor behaviour changes in Mongolian gerbils of different age, Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jan 6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221164
- Kimmel S, Kuhn J, Harst W, Stever H (2007). Electromagnetic Radiation: Influences on Honeybees (Apis mellifera) (IIAS – Inter Symp Conference, Baden-Baden 2007) http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/kimmel_iaas_2007.pdf
- Kirk, J. H., N.D. Reese, and P C. Bartlett. (1984). Stray Voltage on Michigan Dairy Farms. J.American Veterinary Assoc. 185(4): 426-428 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6469841
- Kirschvink JL, S. Padmanabha, CK Boyce, J. Oglesby (1997). Measurement of the threshold sensitivity of honeybees to weak, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. The Journal of Experimental Biology 200:1363–68 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/200/9/1363.full.pdf+html
- Klimovitsky VYa, Loginov VA, Zagorskaya EA, Weissleder H, Drescher J, Hecht K. (1992). The evaluation of biological efficiency of electromagnetic fields generated by implanted radiotelemetric transmitters used in space research on animals. Physiologist. 35(1Suppl):S248-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Hecht%2C%20K.%20emf
- Korall, H., Leucht, T., & Martin, H. (1988). Bursts of magnetic fields induce jumps of misdirection in bees by a mechanism of magnetic resonance. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 162(3), 279284.doi: 10.1007/BF00606116. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v6406173767q7445/
- Krueger WF, A. J. Giarola, J. W. Bradley, and A. Shrekenhamer (1975). Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fecundity in the Chicken, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 247: 391 .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1054241
- Krylov, V.V. (2010). Effects of electromagnetic fields on parthenogenic eggs of Daphnia magna Straus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(1): 62-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19362370
- Kumar N. R., Sangwan S., Badotra P. (2011). Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees. Toxicol. Int.. 18:70–72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3052591/
- Larkin RP and PJ Sutherland (1977) Migrating birds respond to Project Seafarer’s electromagnetic field. Science 25 February 1977: 195(4280): 777-9. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/195/4280/777.2.abstract
- Lefcourt, Alan M., and R. M. Akers. 1981. Endocrine Response of Cows Subjected to Controlled Voltages During Milking. J. Dairy Sci. 65:2125-2130. 88. 88. Levengood, WC (1969). A new teratogenic agent applied to amphibian embryos. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 21:23– http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5765792
- Levin, M. (2003). Bioelectromagnetics in morphogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics 24:295–315. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12820288
- Löscher, W. and Käs, G. (1998). Conspicuous behavioural abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near a TV and Radio transmitting antenna. Practical Veterinary surgeon, 29: 5, 437-444 www.croww.org/study-effects.pdf
- Magras, I.N and T.D. Xenos, (1997) RF-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice, Bioelectromagnetics 18. 455–461. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261543
- Marks TA., CC Rathke, WO English. (1995). Controversies in Toxicology—Stray voltage and development, reproductive and other toxicology problems in dogs, cats and cows: A discussion. Vet Human Toxicol 37(2):163-172.
- Marks, T.A., C.C. Ratke and W.O. English. (1995). Stray voltage and developmental, reproductive and other toxicology problems in dogs, cats and cows: a discussion. Vet. Hum.Toxicol, 37: 163-172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7631499
- Marks, T.A., C.C. Ratke and W.O. English. (1995). Stray voltage and developmental ,reproductive and other toxicology problems in dogs, cats and cows: a discussion. Vet. Hum.Toxicol, 37: 163-172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7631499
- Marsh, G. (1968). The effect of 60-cycle AC current on the regeneration axis of Dugesia. J. Exp. Zool. 169:65. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1401690109/abstract
- Maw, MG. (1962). Behaviour of insects in electrostatic fields. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Manitoba. 18,30-36.
- McKinley G. M. and D.R. Charles (1930). Certain biological effects of high frequency fields, Science, 71: 490.
- McKinley, G. M. (1930). Some biological effects of high frequency electrostatic fields’, Proc. Penn. Acad. Sci 46.
- Meral I, Mert H, Mert N, Deger Y, Yoruk I, Yetkin A, Keskin S. (2007). Effects of 900-MHzelectromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on brain oxidative stress and some vitamin levels of guinea pigs. Brain Res.1169:120-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674954
- Neurath, P. W. (1968). High gradient magnetic field inhibits embryonic development of frogs. Nature 219: 1358
- Newland PL, E Hunt, SM Sharkh, N Hama, M Takahata, CW Jackson (2008). Static electric field detection and behavioural avoidance in cockroaches. J Exp Biol 211, 3682-3690. http://jeb.biologists.org/content/211/23/3682.full
- Nicholls B, Racey PA. (2007). Bats avoid radar installations: Could electromagnetic fields deter bats from colliding with wind turbines? PloS ONE. 2(3):e297. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372629
- Nicholls B, Racey PA. (2009). The aversive effect of electromagnetic radiation on foraging bats: a possible means of discouraging bats from approaching wind turbines. PLoS One. 16;4(7):e6246
- Nittby H, Moghadam MK, Sun W, Malmgren L, Eberhardt J, Persson BR, Salford LG.(2011). Analgetic effects of non-thermal GSM-1900 radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the land snail Helix pomatia. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124250
- Olsen, R.G., (1997). Insect teratogenesis in a standing-wave irradiation system. RadioScience 12: 199-207. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1977/RS012i06Sp00199.shtml
- Orlov, V. M. (1990). Invertebrates and high voltage power lines Electromagnetic Biologyand Medicine 9(2): 121-131 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379009119800
- Orlov, V. M. and Babenko, A. S. (1988). Effect of the electric field of high voltage transmission lines on land invertebrates. Sov. J. Ecol. 18,267 -274
- Panagopoulos D.J., Karabarbounis A., and Margaritis L.H., (2004). Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 23(1), 29-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17045516
- Perumpral, J. V., Earp, U. F. and Stanley, J. M. (1978). Effects of electrostatic fields on locational preference of house flies and flight activities of cabbage loopers. Environ. Entomol. 7, 482-486. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/1978/00000007/00000003/art00032
- Prolić Z, R Jovanović, G Konjević, B Janać (2003). Behavioral Differences of the Insect Morimus funereus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) Exposed to an Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 22(1): 63–73.http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-120020358
- Prolić, Z., Jovanović, Z. (1986) [Influence of magnetic field on the rate of development of honey bee preadult stage]. Periodicum biologorum, Zagreb, 88: 187-188
- Rejt L, Mazgajski T, Kubacki R, Kieliszek J, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S. (2007).Influence of radar radiation on breeding biology of tits (Parus sp.). Electromagn Biol Med .26(3):235-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17886009
- Rochalska M (2009). [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna]. Medycyna pracy 60(1):43-50 [Article in Polish] http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/19603696
- Rochalska M (2007). [The effect of electromagnetic fields on living organisms: plants, birds and animals]. Medycyna pracy 58(1):37-48 [Article in Polish] http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/17571627
- Rochalska M.(2007). [The effect of electromagnetic fields on living organisms: plants, birds and animals]. Med Pr. 58(1):37-48. [Article in Polish] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17571627
- Rodriguez, M., D. Petitclerc, J.F. Burchard, D.H. Nguyen, E. Block and B.R. Downey(2003). Responses of the estrous cycle in dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields(60 Hz) during 8-h photoperiods. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 15: 11-20. http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/anirep/article/S0378-4320(02)00273-7/abstract
- Sainudeen Sahib S. (2011). Impact of mobile phones on the density of honeybees. Journal of public administration and policy research 3(4) pp. 131-117. http://www.academicjournals.org/jhf/PDF/pdf2011/April/Sainudeen%20sahib.pdf
- Sainudeen Sahib.S (2010). Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Clashes with Honey Bees. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 1(5). 897-900. http://ipublishing.co.in/jesvol1no12010/EIJES2044.pdf
- Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S. (2010). Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study, Int J Impot Res .22(2):12733 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19940851
- Savić T, Janać B, Todorović D, Prolić Z. (2011). The embryonic and post-embryonicdevelopment in two Drosophila species exposed to the static magnetic field of 60 mT. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(2):108-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591895
- Semm P.(1983) Neurobiological investigation of the magnetic sensitivity of the pineal gland in rodents and pigeons. Comp Biochem Physiol A 76:683–689 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0300962983901299
- Severini, M and Bosco,L. (2010). Delayed maturation of Xenopus laevis (Daudin) tadpoles exposed to a weak ELF magnetic field: sensitivity to small variations of magnetic flux density. Eur. J. Oncol. Library. 5: 247-60. http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?l=g&aid=18903
- Sharma V.P. and N.R. Kumar (2010). Changes in Honeybee Behaviour and Biology Under the Influence of Cellphone Radiations. Current Science 98 (10). 1376-78. http://www.bemri.org/publications/doc_view/286-changes-in-honeybee-behaviour-and- biology-under-the-influence-of-cellphone-radiations.raw?tmpl=component
- Sheiman I. M., Kreshchenko N. D. (2009). [Influence of weak electromagnetic field on different forms of behavior in grain beetle, Tenebrio molitor] [Article in Russian]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. Jul-Aug; 59(4):488-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19795812
- Shutenko, O. I., et al. (1981). Effects of super-high electromagnetic fields on animals of different ages. Gigiyena i Sanitariya, no. 10:35-38, JPRS 84 221: 85-90.
- Southern W. (1975). Orientation of Gull Chicks Exposed to Project Sanguine’s Electromagnetic Field, Science, 189: 143. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/189/4197/143.short
- Stärk, K. D., Krebs, T., Altpeter, E., Manz, B., Griot, C., & Abelin, T. (1997). Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. Journal of Pineal Research, 22(4), 171-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247202
- Summers-Smith, J.D. (2003). The decline of the house sparrow: a review. Brit. Birds 96439–446. http://www.ndoc.org.uk/articles/passerine1.htm
- Tanner J.A. (1969) National Research centre of Canada Extract from LTR-CS-18. “Effects of microwave radiation on Parakeets in Flight”
- Tanner J.A., C. Romero-Sierra (1982). The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Very Low Intensity Microwave Radiation on Domestic Fowl. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 1(2): 195–205. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378209040336
- Tanner JA, C. Romero-Sierra and S.J. Davie (1969) The Effects of Microwaves on Birds: Preliminary Experiments. JMPEE 4(2): 122-28. http://www.jmpee.org/JMPEE_PDFs/04-2_bl/JMPEE-Vol4-Pg122-Tanner.pdf
- Tanner JA, Romero-Siena C. and Davie, SJ. (1969). The effects of microwave on birds: preliminary experiments. Journal of Microwave Power. 4(2): 122. (Cited in McRee 1972).
- Tanner JA. (1966). Effect of microwave radiation on birds. Nature. 7; 210(5036):636. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5964569
- Tanner, J.A. & DR. Sierra, romero (1973) Dept of Anatomy, Queen University, Kingston Canada Extract from LTR- Cs-89. “Bird Feathers as Dialectic Receptors of Microwave Radiation.”
- Temuryants NA, Demtsun NA (2010). Seasonal differences in the regeneration of planarians under conditions of long-term electromagnetic shielding. Biophysics 55(4): 628-632, http://www.springerlink.com/content/h34v2v174357v524/
- Ubeda, A., J Leal, M A Trillo, M A Jimenez, and J M Delgado. (1983). Pulse shape of magnetic fields influences chick embryogenesis. Anat. 137(Pt 3): 513–536. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1171845/pdf/janat00207-0069.pdf
- Úbeda, A; M.A. Trillo, L. Chacón, M.J. Blanco, J. Leal (1994). Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics 15 (1994) 385–398. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7802707
- Walker MM and M.E. Bitterman (1989). Honeybees Can Be Trained to Respond to Very Small Changes in Geomagnetic Field Intensity. J. Exp. Biology 145, 489-494 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1851986/
- Warnke . U. (1976). Effects of electric charges on honeybees Effects of electric charges on honey bees . Bee World 57(2):50-56. http://bemri.org/publications/biological-effects-of-non-ionizing-radiation.html
- Warnke . U. (2007). Birds, Bees and Mankind. The Competence Initiative for the Humanity, Environment and Democracy. Brochure 1. http://www.bemri.org/publications/cat_view/2-publications/5-biological-effects-of-non-ionizing-radiation/17-wildlife.html
- Wasserman et al. (1984) The effects of microwave radiation on avian dominance behavior Bioelectromagnetics 5:331-339 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6487384?dopt=Abstract
- Watson DB (1988). The bouncing of Drosophila melanogaster in power frequency electric fields New Zealand Entomologist 11(1): 21–24 http://www.ento.org.nz/nzentomologist/free_issues/NZEnto11_1_1988/Volume%2011-21-24.pdf
- Weisbrot D, Lin H, Ye L, Blank M, Goodman R. (2003). Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biochem. 1;89(1):48-55 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682907
- Wellenstein, G. (1973). The influence of high tension lines on honey bee colonies. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomoligie, 74, 86-94
- Williams, T.C. (1976). A radar investigation of the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on free flying migrant birds. In Compilation of Navy Sponsored ELF Biomedical and Ecological Research Reports, vol. 3. Bethesda, Md.: Naval Research andDevelopment Command.
- Windle BC. (1895). The Effects of Electricity and Magnetism on Development. J Anat Physiol. 29(Pt 3): 346–351 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1328408/
- Youbicier-Simo, B. J, Boudard, F., Cabaner, C., and Bastide, M. (1997). Biological effects of continuous exposure of embryos and young chickens to electromagnetic fields emitted by video display units. Bioelectromagnetics 18:514–523. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1997)18:7%3C514::AID-BEM7%3E3.0.CO;2-5/abstract
- Zareen N, Khan MY. (2008). Effect of mobile phone induced electromagnetic fields on the development of chick embryo. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 18(8):528-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18798598
- Zareen N, MYKhan, LA Minhas (2009). Dose Related Shifts In The Developmental Progress Of Chick Embryos Exposed To Mobile Phone Induced Electromagnetic Fields. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 21(1): 130-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364761; http://ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/PAST/21- 1/Zareen.pdf
- Stindl R, Stindl W Jr. (2010) Vanishing honey bees: Is the dying of adult worker bees a consequence of short telomeres and premature aging?, Med Hypotheses. 75(4):387-90.
- van Engelsdorp D, Hayes J Jr, Underwood RM, Pettis J. (2008) A survey of honey bee colony losses in the U.S., fall 2007 to spring 2008. PLoS One. 3(12):e4071.
- Bacandritsos N, Granato A, Budge G, Papanastasiou I, Roinioti E, Caldon M, Falcaro C,Gallina A, Mutinelli F. (2010) Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies. J Invertebr Pathol. Sep 23 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804765
- Erickson, EH (1975). Surface electric potentials on worker honeybees leaving and entering the hive. J. Apic. Res. 14: 141-147.
Also see: http://www.bemri.org/publications/cat_view/2-publications/5-biological-effects-of-non-ionizing-radiation/17-wildlife.html
Dairy cattle have become a significant indicator species of some of the adverse consequences of exposure to various electromagnetic fields, the following references from Cows: a big model for EMF research, somewhere between Vet-Journals and “Nature” by: Maren Fedrowitz: Sep 05, 2014 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. ( published by The Bioelectromagnetics Society)
Magneto-reception in cows and other mammals:
Begall S, Cerveny J, Neef J, Vojtech O, Burda H. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer. PNAS, 2008, 105:13451-13455
Burda H, Begall S, Cerveny J, Neef J, Nemec P. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants. PNAS, 2009, 106:5708-5713
Hert J, Jelinek L, Pekarek L, Pavlicek A. No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found. J Comp Physiol A, 2011, 197:677-682
Begall S, Burda H, Cerveny J, Gerter O, Neef-Weisse J, Nemec P. Further support for the alignment of cattle along field lines: reply to Hert et al. J Comp Physiol A, 2011, 197:1127-1133
Cressey D. Magnetic cows are visible from space. Nature News, 2008 http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080825/full/news.2008.1059.html
Cressey D. Return of the B-field bovines. Nature News Blog, 2009 http://blogs.nature.com/news/2009/03/return_of_the_bfield_bovines.html
Cressey D. The mystery of the magnetic cows. Nature News, 2011 http://www.nature.com/news/the-mystery-of-the-magnetic-cows-1.9350
Slaby P, Tomanova K, Vacha M. Cattle on pastures do align along the North-South axis, but the alignment depends on herd density. J Comp Physiol A, 2013, 199:695-701
Cerveny J, Begall S, Koubek P, Novakova P, Burda H. Directional preference max enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes. Biol Lett, 2011, 7:355-357
Hart V, Novakova P, Malkemper EP, Begall S, Hanzal V, Jezek M, Kusta T, Nemcova V, Adamkova J, Benediktkova K, Cerveny J, Burda H. Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth´s magnetic field. Frontiers Zoology, 2013, 10:80
Eder SHK, Cadiou H, Muhamad A, McNaughton PA, Kirschvink JL, Winklhofer M. Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells. PNAS, 2012, 109:12022-12027
Effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields in (dairy) cows:
Algers B, Hultgren J. Effects of long-term exposure to a 400 kV, 50 Hz transmission line on estrous and fertility in cows. Prev Vet Med, 1987, 5:21-36
Algers B, Hennichs K. The effect of exposure to 400 kV transmission lines on the fertility of cows. Prev Vet Med, 1985, 3:351-361
Angell RF, Schott MR, Raleigh RJ, Bracken TD. Effects of a high-voltage direct-current transmission line on beef cattle production. Bioelectromagnetics, 1990, 11:273-282
Broucek J, Uhrincat M, Sandor A, Arave CW, Mihina S, Waiblinger S, Hanus A, Kisac P. Effect of low magnetic field on calves during prenatal development. Tierärztl Umschau, 2002, 57:241-248 (German)
Broucek J, Sandor A, Arave CW, Mihina S, Waiblinger S, Uhrincat M, Hanus A, Tancin V, Kisac P. Effect of low magnetic field on dairy cows. Tierärztl Umschau, 2001, 56:364-369 (German)
Stelletta C, De Nardo P, Santin F, Basso G, Michielotto B, Piccione G, Morgante M. Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electro-magnetic fields on circadian rhythms and distribution of some leukocyte differentiation antigens in dairy cows. Biomed Environ Sci, 2007, 2:164-170
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Richard L, Block E. Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on productivity of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 1996, 79:1549-1554
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin concentrations in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 1998, 81:722-727
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Richard L, Young SN, Heyes MP, Block E. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the levels of biogenic amine metabolites, quinolinic acid, and beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows. Neurochem Res, 1998, 23:1527-1531
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. Progesterone concentrations during estrous cycle of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 1998, 19:438-443
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. Macro- and trace element concentrations in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 1999, 20:358-364
Rodriguez M, Petitclerc D, Nguyen DH, Block E, Burchard JF. Effect of electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) on production, and levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, in lactating, pregnant cows subjected to short days. J Dairy Sci, 2002, 85:2843-2849
Burchard JF, Monardes H, Nguyen DH. Effects of 10 kV, 30 µT, 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on milk production and feed intake in nonpregnant dairy cattle. Bioelectromagnetics, 2003, 24:557-563
Rodriguez M, Petitclerc D, Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E, Downey BR. Responses of the estrous cycle in dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) during 8-h photoperiods. Anim Reprod Sci, 2003, 77:11-20
Rodriguez M, Petitclerc D, Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. Blood melatonin and prolactin concentrations in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields during 8 h photoperiods. Bioelectromagnetics, 2004, 25:508-515
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Monardes HG, Petitclerc D. Lack of effect of 10 kV/m 60 Hz electric field exposure on pregnant heifer hormones. Bioelectromagnetics, 2004, 25:308-312
Nguyen DH, Richard L, Burchard JF. Exposure chamber for determining the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Bioelectromagnetics, 2005, 26:138-144
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Rodriguez M. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 2006, 27-553-559
Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Monardes HG. Exposure of pregnant dairy heifer to magnetic fields at 60 Hz and 30 µT. Bioelectromagnetics, 2007, 28:471-476
Effects of stray voltage in cows
Erdreich LS, Alexander DD, Wagner ME, Reinemann D. Meta-analysis of stray voltage on dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci, 2009, 92:5951-5963
Hillman D, Stetzer D, Graham M, Goeke CL, Mathson KE, VanHorn HH, Wilcox CJ. Relationship of electric power quality to milk production of dairy herds – Field study with literature review. Sci Total Environ, 2013, 447:500-514
Effects of radiofrequency fields in cows:
Stärk KD, Krebs T, Altpeter E, Manz B, Griot C, Abelin T. Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. J Pineal Res, 1997, 22:171-176
Löscher W, Käs G. Behavioral abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near a TV and radio transmitting antenna. Prakt Tierarzt, 1998, 79:437-444 (German)
Löscher W. Survey of effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on production, health and behavior of farm animals. Prakt Tierarzt, 2003, 84:11 (German)
Wenzel C, Wöhr AC, Unshelm J. The effect of electromagnetic transmitters on behaviour of dairy cows. Prakt Tierarzt, 2002, 83:260-26 (German)
Hässig M, Jud F, Naegeli H, Kupper J, Spiess BM. Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd, 2009, 151:471-478
Hässig M, Wullschleger M, Naegeli HP, Kupper J, Spiess B, Kuster N, Capstick M, Murbach M. Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines. BMC Vet Res, 2014, 10:136